# Classical Properties of Matter - Surface Tension

###### Publisher: Ashwini Kumar Rath

This book is intended for being used as a textbook or reference book at the level of first-year graduation-level Physics or engineering. The objective is to provide a set of comprehensive materials that would help the student to grasp the concepts. The prerequisite for this book is pre-university Mathematics and Physics.

1
##### Introduction to Surface Tension
Liquid state emerges when net potential energy of a system just exceeds the kinetic energy. The intermolecular force existing in water illustrates the first kind, and the force between water molecule and glass molecule is adhesive.
Last updated on: Sep 2, 2021
2
##### Microscopic View
Every molecule which is the bulk of the liquid is attracted by other liquid-molecules from all directions. So, there is no residual force, i.e., the liquid-molecule is in equilibrium.
Last updated on: Sep 2, 2021
3
##### Angle of Contact
It is also called wetting angle of the corresponding pair of liquid and solid. It is defined as the angle between the tangent to the liquid surface and the solid inside the liquid.
Last updated on: Sep 2, 2021
4
##### Neumann’s Triangle
With these 3 forces, it is possible to form a triangle in which these forces are sides, taken in order. This hypothetical triangle is known as Neumann’s Triangle.
Last updated on: Sep 2, 2021
5
##### Meniscus
According to oxford, Greenwich Directory, meniscus (plural menisci) means ‘curved upper surface of liquid in tube’.
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6
##### Excess Of Pressure Due To Surface Tension
Surface tension does not depend on the area of the free-surface of the liquid.
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8
##### Shape of a Large Drop
For a small liquid drop, the surface tension is predominant and the effect of gravity is negligible. But in case of a large drop, the gravity becomes influential because of the weight of the liquid drop itself.
Last updated on: Sep 2, 2021
9
##### Propagation Of Waves On The Liquid Surface
The propagation of waves on the liquid surface is controlled by 3 external forces: i. Gravity ii. Surface tension and iii. Hydrostatic pressure.
Last updated on: Sep 2, 2021